Journal of Economic Impact <p class="justify">Journal of Economic Impact (JEI) welcomes all research articles relevant to economics and other relevant social science subjects. The journal of Economic Impact aims to provide an opportunity and a forum to communicate relevant and current issues in the area of Economics and its allied subjects. The objective of this journal is to publish prolific novel scientific work while making them freely available for the scholarly world. Journal of Economic Impact is an open access journal. Abstracts and full texts of all articles published in the Journal of Economics Impact can be read online without any form of restriction.</p> Science Impact Publishers en-US Journal of Economic Impact 2664-9756 <p class="Default"> </p> <p> </p> The Uncertainty Problem in Cost-Benefit Analysis Expanded: A Current Review <p class="007JEI-ABSTRACT" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">This article examines the current state of cost-benefit analysis and its limitations. The review was completed by looking at current literature of cost-benefit analysis with the most up to date developments. Currently, it faces known challenges in quantifying subjective human elements, incommensurable costs and benefits, difficulty in measuring and discounting future benefits and costs, and the potential lack of impartiality in regulatory settings. However, this article uniquely addresses a paradox in the analysis process itself related to the discovery of new information. Methods to mitigate risk and uncertainty, such as sensitivity analysis, Monte Carlo simulations, and scenario analysis, are analyzed. Additionally, quasi-option value is addressed as it relates the discovery of new information. Despite these approaches to mitigate uncertainty, uncertainty remains a fundamental challenge in achieving true optimality through cost-benefit analysis. However, it is found that despite the paradox identified in this article, it can still be a useful tool in evaluating decision alternatives.</span></p> Derek Linton Copyright (c) 2024 Derek Linton 2024-02-12 2024-02-12 6 1 21 26 10.52223/econimpact.2024.6103 Subsector Outlook Research in Ethiopia: The Case of Hides and Skins Production, and Marketing <p>Ethiopia is the 5<sup>th</sup> largest livestock producer in the world and ranks first in Africa and the country is home to millions of livestock population that has the potential to produce hides and skins. the study aimed to analyze the status and outlook of hides and skins (HSs) production and marketing in Ethiopia. The study used secondary data and triangulated using KII and FGD, and conducted analysis using different forecasting techniques. Hides production increased by 4.94% annually between 2005/06 and 2021/22. Smallholder HSs sales rate declined while HSs home utilization rate increased between 2008/09 and 2021/22, these might be due to poor HSs quality and marking problems. These suggest that preparing a livestock management training manual and incorporating it into the existing extension package, and linking actors with markets are crucial. From 2002/03-2021/22, the volume of HSs, and leather and leather product (LLP) exports was volatile but reduced from 10.55 to 2.24 thousand MT, and the income reduced from USD 52.22 to 33.2 million. The volume of exports reduced by 43.47% from 2012/13 to 2021/22; this could be the result of the low quality of HSs, and government policy led to low production of tanners and manufacturers to supply to the export market therefore, maintaining the quality of HSs starting from livestock production, slaughter, and post-slaughter through extension service, and revising policies are important. Despite Ethiopia has opportunity for livestock availability, government support of the leather sector, and high demand for HSs in the international market, the leather sector faces production, marketing, and policy challenges. With these challenges, HSs production will continue and increase, while the sales rate will decrease and the utilization rate will continue but never increase for the next ten years. The HS and LLP export will also continue, but never increase in these years.</p> Rehima Mussema Copyright (c) 2024 Rehima Mussema 2024-02-04 2024-02-04 6 1 1 13 10.52223/econimpact.2024.6101 Energy, Forests and Environmental Sustainability: A Comparative Analysis of Developed and Developing Economies <p>The use of fossil fuels is essential for economic growth, but it also creates environmental hazards that cause 5 million people to die every year. The use of renewable energy is limited because of financial constraints, and there is a need to find ways to decouple fossil fuel consumption and pollution. This study provides a way forward by introducing forest as a moderator. This study has taken data from all countries of the world from 2011 to 2021 and estimated the impact of forests, energy consumption, forest-energy moderator, population, and gross fixed capital formation on the environment. Leveraging the Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) estimation technique to address heterogeneity and outliers, the study reveals that while the effects of forests and energy consumption align, population density and gross fixed capital formation exert disparate influences on the environment in developing and developed nations. The incorporation of forests as a moderator emerges as a consistently effective measure.</p> Muhammad Ghulam Shabeer Farhat Rasul Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Ghulam Shabeer, Farhat Rasul 2024-02-12 2024-02-12 6 1 14 20 10.52223/econimpact.2024.6102 The Role of Moderators on Product Quality and Export Flows: The Case of Pakistan <p>High-quality products are always in demand for both local and international markets. The demand for such products can be increased by the product sales at a domestic level. It can also be helpful to increase the export flows of an economy and hence improve the trade flows. Other factors have a moderating role in determining the relationship between export product quality and trade flows. The objective of this study is to examine the role of moderating variables, which are used to check the strength of the above relationship. There are three variables: financial constraints, firm heterogeneity, and R&amp;D activities are taken as moderators. For this purpose, the data is taken from annual financial reports of non-financial firms which are listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange. Also, some country-level data is taken from the Pakistan Economic Survey. The objective of the study was achieved by using panel techniques Fixed Effect, Random Effect Model for the period of 1999 to 2020. It is found that firm heterogeneity and R&amp;D activities have positive and financial constraints have negative but significant effects on strengthening the relationship between product quality and export flows. Based on our findings, the government should provide R&amp;D funds and financial aid programs for new investors to improve product quality and increase their sales in local and international markets.</p> Sumaira Saeed Miraj ul Haq Arshad Ali Bhatti Copyright (c) 2024 Sumaira Saeed, Miraj ul Haq, Arshad Ali Bhatti 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 6 1 27 36 10.52223/econimpact.2024.6104 Impact of Financial Distress on Earnings Management with the Moderating Role of Audit Quality: Evidence from Pakistan <p class="007JEI-ABSTRACT" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">The core aim of the financial reports is to provide a firm’s annual results of financial performance and position to stakeholders on time. Several accounting scandals led to the default of many large-scale corporations, leading to investors’ lack of confidence in the reliability of financial information and also putting a question mark on the effectiveness of internal control mechanisms and external audits. Business managers of financially distressed firms use the choice of accrual accounting methods which gives them leverage to misuse their powers and expropriate stakeholders by showing good financial results. So, this study fills this gap by investigating the presence of Financial Distress (FD) and its effect on Earnings Management (EM) with the moderating role of Audit Quality (AQ). The sample of this study contains the data of 96 non-financial listed companies for the period 2017-2022 on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX). This study uses the discretionary accruals as a proxy for the EM and Z-score for FD. The results and analysis find that FD and EM have a significant positive relationship, which reveals that corporate managers of distressed companies do EM while AQ weakens this relationship. This study recommends that professional bodies, regulatory authorities, and corporate governance institutions must design policies that restrict corporate managers from getting involved in earning management practices, especially in the time of FD.</span></p> Syed Taha Fraz Haider Kazmi Burhan Rasheed Zohair Farooq Malik Amer Shakeel Muhammad Gulzar Copyright (c) 2024 Syed Taha Fraz Haider Kazmi, Burhan Rasheed, Zohair Farooq Malik, Amer Shakeel, Muhammad Gulzar 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 6 1 37 43 10.52223/econimpact.2024.6105 A Comprehensive Farm Efficiency Analysis of Apple Growers in Newley Merged District South Waziristan <p>In the apple-producing land of South Waziristan’s three tehsils, Wana, Bermal, and Tiarza, this research paper is designed to analyze farmers' efficiencies, e.g., production, allocative and technical dimensions. Through a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) framework, the study evaluates the performance trajectories of 304 apple growers. A multistage sampling technique was used for the farmer’s interview. To the researcher’s knowledge, there is no detailed efficiency analysis of South Waziristan’s apple growers in existing literature, so there is a need to investigate the factors affecting efficiencies in the targeted area. The researcher is therefore encouraged to conduct a study of the farm efficiency of apple growers in South Waziristan. Apple growers' efficiencies were categorized as technical, allocative, and economic efficiency using the DEA approach. Results of the study show that there were tremendous inefficiencies of apple growers, which need to be reduced. This study sheds light on optimal resource allocation, productivity dynamics, and efficiency frontiers within apple cultivation in South Waziristan. The research offers an understanding of agricultural practices, resource utilization patterns, and efficiency benchmarks. The empirical insights derived from this comprehensive analysis facilitate informed decision-making among farmers and provide policymakers, agricultural stakeholders, and development practitioners with actionable recommendations to enhance agricultural productivity, sustainability, and socio-economic well-being in the region. Through empirical evidence and contextual relevance, this paper contributes significantly to the evolving discourse on agricultural efficiency analysis and underscores the imperative of tailored interventions for optimizing apple cultivation practices in South Waziristan.</p> Zahid Ullah Sarfraz Hassan Azhar Abbas Raza Ullah Copyright (c) 2024 Zahid Ullah, Sarfraz Hassan, Azhar Abbas, Raza Ullah 2024-02-24 2024-02-24 6 1 44 52 10.52223/econimpact.2024.6106 Equal Educational Opportunities: A Catalyst for Sustainable Economic Development <p>The study holds significance in revealing how ensuring fair access to education can fuel economic growth, promote social cohesion, and guide policymaking for sustainable development. The objective of current research is to empirically examine the relationship between gender disparity in educational attainment within social, and ecological systems. The data is collected for the period 1990-2022. In the presence of cross-sectional dependence 2<sup>nd</sup> generation unit root test is applied. CS-ARDL technique is considered to examine the short-run as well as the long-run relationship between Gender disparity in education and the socio-ecological system. Achieving environmental sustainability and minimizing our ecological footprints depend critically on gender parity in education. Equal access to high-quality education gives women the knowledge, analytical abilities, and self-assurance to stand up for their communities and themselves. Findings describe that in the long run, there is a statistically significant negative correlation between the GINI-Coefficient and school enrollment tertiary and School enrollment primary. This indicates that, over time, a decrease in income disparity is linked to an increase in enrolment in primary and postsecondary education. In the long run, the GINI-Coefficient and Secondary school enrollment has a positive and statistically significant relationship. The data in Model 2 appear to indicate that the relationship between education and environmental sustainability is more intricate than the EKC hypothesis predicts. Higher education can raise one's knowledge and understanding of environmental issues, but it can also increase consumption and have an adverse effect on the environment. The findings of the study suggest that implementing policies with the goal of removing obstacles to education based on gender. This could entail giving families financial incentives to send their daughters to school and making sure that all genders have access to high-quality education.</p> Hafsa Batool Urooj Maqbool Saba Gulzar Copyright (c) 2024 Hafsa Batool, Urooj Maqbool, Saba Gulzar 2024-04-16 2024-04-16 6 1 53 61 10.52223/econimpact.2024.6107 Impact of Performance Expectancy on Adaptive Performance: through Serial Mediation Mechanism <p>Performance Expectancy has an effect on the adaptive performance of managers in small and medium-sized businesses in Pakistan. This study looks at how this expectation work together. The research also looks at how mobile usage can act as a mediator, as well as how productivity also mediates in the same way. In this study, the researchers wanted to study that how usage of mobile and productivity helps managers change their performance at work. The people this study is aimed at are managers or owners of small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) that are listed with the Chambers of Commerce in Pakistan's major cities. As part of the full study, 406 responses were gathered, which is a 75% answer rate. Structure Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to build measurement and structure models that were used to test the theory. The findings showed that there were progressive mediators in the link between Performance expectancy and adaptive performance. There was a strong and good direct effect of performance expectation on adaptive performance. This link was also affected by sequential mediators, such as the usage and productivity. There is a positive and statistically significant link between all the variables. The study's results will help academics, the banking industry, SMEDA, and practitioners understand how important it is to use mobile devices and how performance expectation affect flexible performance. Researchers should focus on doing an empirical study in the future to look into how information quality, system quality of mobile devices, and mobile payments affect the change in the system. Small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) and big businesses in Pakistan might be compared as part of this study.</p> Abid Hussain Waqas Baig Sana Rashid Muhammad Amjed Iqbal Manzoor Ahmad Shah Mudassar Yasin Copyright (c) 2024 Abid Hussain, Waqas Baig, Sana Rashid, Muhammad Amjed Iqbal, Manzoor Ahmad Shah, Mudassar Yasin 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 6 1 62 69 10.52223/econimpact.2024.6108 Examining Inflation Expectations within Asian Economies: Application of Wavelet Quantile Analysis towards Assessing Monetary Policy Credibility <p class="007JEI-ABSTRACT" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">The relevance of rational expectations has generated a renewed interest in assessing the accuracy of monetary policy declarations. Despite the enduring principles of the rational expectations theory, a remarkably dependable central bank can alleviate inflation by skillfully managing inflation expectations, thus avoiding adverse effects on employment. This paper explores the complex relationship between inflation expectations, target inflation rates, and the credibility of monetary policy, emphasizing the importance of rule compliance and transparent communication for establishing public confidence in central banks.<span style="color: #0d0d0d; background: white;"> While the estimation processes the study utilizes wavelet-based quantile regression by investigating data from 1990q1 to 2021q4, with variations across selected countries. The credibility index (CI) is employed to instrument the dependability of monetary policies. Nevertheless, the results of this study indicate that Policy credibility has a significant impact on inflation expectations in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, underscoring the importance of clear communication and institutional reforms. Different outcomes in India and considerable effects in Pakistan underscore the necessity of customized policy measures and communication strategies to address inflation and promote economic stability in South Asia.</span></span></p> Khaliq Ul Rehman Ghulam Ghouse Copyright (c) 2024 Khaliq Ul Rehman Rehman, Ghulam Ghouse 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 6 1 70 80 10.52223/econimpact.2024.6109 Digital Literacy and Inclusive Growth: Examining Digital Empowerment of Female Students in Lahore <p>The digital economy has created various entrepreneurship opportunities for women in Pakistan. E-commerce platforms and online marketplaces have enabled women to start their own businesses, reach a larger customer base, and overcome traditional gender-based constraints. The ability to operate businesses from home has also provided flexibility, allowing women to balance their work and family responsibilities. The primary objective is to explore the digital empowerment status of female students in Lahore. This study utilizes a modified scale for the dependent variable, focusing on the dimensions of digital awareness, legal understanding, and economic aspects of digital empowerment. To investigate digital empowerment, the questionnaire is distributed to gather data from 390 female students of both public and private universities in Lahore, Pakistan. Data is analyzed using Smart-PLS 4 and SPSS, while graphical analysis is done through R studio. Frequency, mean, standard deviation, and percentage of variables are calculated for data analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis CFA is used to evaluate the hypotheses. The results reveal that the majority of the 65.3% of respondents have a medium level of digital empowerment. Income has a positive and significant impact on digital empowerment. Digital literacy skills, digital training, and internet skills have positive and significant impact on digital empowerment. Independent variables are considered as important factors in promoting digital empowerment among female students. Institutions and discipline negatively and significantly influence digital empowerment. Additionally, the study examines female students' access to a digital device and their internet usage behavior. Results show that 25.9% of respondents do not have access to the device at home. This research endeavors to pave the way for policy formulation aimed at empowering young female students with essential digital literacy skills that align with international standards.</p> Atifa Arif Hafsah Batool Shabana Asgher Copyright (c) 2024 Atifa Arif, Hafsah Batool, Shabana Asgher 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 6 1 81 93 10.52223/econimpact.2024.6110