Journal of Economic Impact <p class="justify">Journal of Economic Impact (JEI) welcomes all research articles relevant to economics and other relevant social science subjects. The journal of Economic Impact aims to provide an opportunity and a forum to communicate relevant and current issues in the area of Economics and its allied subjects. The objective of this journal is to publish prolific novel scientific work while making them freely available for the scholarly world. Journal of Economic Impact is an open access journal. Abstracts and full texts of all articles published in the Journal of Economics Impact can be read online without any form of restriction.</p> en-US <p class="Default"> </p> <p> </p> (Dr. Iqbal Javed) (Mudassar Yasin) Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 An Economic Impact of Political Instability: An Evidence from Pakistan <p class="1JEI-ABSTRACT" style="text-align: left;" align="left">The economy of Pakistan has been badly damaged by the political instability in the country. Despite its enormous economic resources, Pakistan’s economy remained under dark shadows during most of its historical discourse. The economic indicators describe a significant relationship between politics and the economy of Pakistan. The following study, by reviewing previous studies, concludes that there is a negative relationship between political instability and economic growth in Pakistan from 2000 to 2019. Political instability flourished corruption and reduced the economic growth of the country. Moreover, a weak political system and government institutions could not resist the political tension in the country. The study finally concludes that political instability reduces economic growth in the country and economic growth reinforces political stability in the country.</p> Abdul Rehman Nawaz, Usama Anwar, Fizza Aquil Copyright (c) 2021 Abdul Rehman Nawaz, Usama Anwar, Fizza Aquil Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-economic Impact and Migration Due to Water Shortage in District Badin Sindh Province of Pakistan <table width="659"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="458"> <p>The agriculture sector is the backbone of Pakistan's economy. It contributes 18.9 percent to the national GDP (Gross Domestic Product), and 43.5 percent to the national labor force. The term ‘water scarcity’ depicts, the water demand that could not fulfill the human need. Some of the factors that cause water scarcity include dry spells, shortage of irrigation water, climate change, drought, excessive storage, and weather extremes. Another critical factor that causes scarcity is excessive population growth. Water stress directly impacts human migration because it affects the human lives and socio-economic conditions of the migrants. This study aimed to examine the impact of water shortage on the socioeconomic condition of growers in the study area. To examine how water scarcity is behind the migration and to analyze the impact of water shortage on agricultural production. The analysis of the data reveals that migration occurs due to the shortage of water in the last five years of Taluka, Tando Bago. The current scenario of the study depicted that Tando Bago is suffering from the worst condition of water shortage and about 60 percent of farmers were not in a condition to use the freshwater resources. According to the farmer's perception (88%), the quality of underground water is seen to be low as compared to taluka Matli. It is a big threat to the agriculture sector in terms of productivity, soil degradation, and fallow land. The study further reveals that per acre yield of crops is low that signifies the impact of water shortage on agriculture production. In taluka Matli, the net return of wheat crop and per-acre value of land (RS: 795,858), is high as compared to Tando Bago (RS: 225,428). The results of the study favours’ the significant impact of water shortage on socioeconomic and migration of the people in district Badin.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Ghulam Nabi Dahri, Tehmina Mangan, Ghulam Mustafa Nangraj, Basit Ali Talpur, Imran Ali Jarwar, Mehrunisa Sial, Abdul Nasir Nangraj, Mr. Aamir Copyright (c) 2021 Ghulam Nabi Dahri, Tehmina Mangan , Ghulam Mustafa Nangraj , Basit Ali Talpur, Imran Ali Jarwar, Mehrunisa Sial , Abdul Nasir Nangraj , Aamir Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of Basmati Exports from Pakistan: A Panel Data Analysis <table width="659"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="458"> <p>This paper aims to estimate the impact of different factors of basmati exports from Pakistan to its trading partner. Results are obtained by using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) model and panel data methodology with a sample of 22 countries for the period of 2003-2019. To estimate the impact of different variables on basmati exports Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) model is used on the panel dataset. The results revealed that the inflation rate of Pakistan has a negative and significant effect on the export competitiveness of Pakistani basmati. The exchange rate of Pakistan has a positive and significant impact on the basmati export, the population of Pakistan has a negative and significant impact on basmati export. Basmati production in Pakistan also has a significant and negative impact on basmati export. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Pakistan has a significant and positive impact on the basmati export while the GDP of the trading partner has a significant and negative impact on the basmati export. The dummy variable for joint border also has a positive and significant impact on basmati exports of Pakistan.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Muhammad Munwar Hayat, Raheela Khatoon Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Munwar Hayat, Raheela Khatoon Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of Unemployment in Selected Developing Countries: A Panel Data Analysis <table width="659"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="458"> <p>This research gives a new glimpse on determinants of unemployment in developing countries. Unemployment is not only a burning issue in developing countries but also in developed countries, but in this study, the case is related to developing countries. For this purpose data of ten selected developing countries has been taken for the period of 2000 to 2019 from the World Bank. Stationarity has been checked through the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test and the result showed that all variables were stationary at 1st difference except the variable of inflation. The Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) model has been applied and results show that all variables are statistically significant. GDP, inflation, remittances, exchange rate, and expenditure on education has a negative impact on unemployment while population and external debt has a positive impact on unemployment. Policy recommendations are that if developing economies want to reduce unemployment they have to control population, remove deficit in the balance of payment, control the inflation rate, raise their GDP, earn the exchange rate due to increase in exports, and gain the foreign remittance and have to allocate the more budget on expenditure on education. In light of these recommendations, all economies can achieve economic efficiency and economic development.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Ayesha Siddiqa Copyright (c) 2021 Ayesha Siddiqa Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of the Vulnerability of Farm Households to Flood Risk in Punjab, Pakistan <table width="659"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="458"> <p>Climate change is the most important challenge for developing as well as developed countries. Pakistan is a developing country and has faced different types of natural disasters such as floods in the last 10 years. The rural areas of Pakistan are adversely affected by floods, which cause significant losses to crops, assets, and the household members face illness, health problems, loss of family income, and displacement. Approximately, 7016 villages with a cropped area of 473998 acres have been affected only in Punjab due to floods during the last four years. The impact of floods is not the same among the different regions, races, ages, classes, and gender. In this regard, a study was conducted to analyze the vulnerability of farm households in three flood-prone districts of Punjab province of Pakistan. These three flood-prone districts have different population size, and are located in high-risk flood region of Punjab was selected for empirical analysis. A well-structured questionnaire was used. Minimum 120 respondents were selected through a random sampling technique. A farm household survey was conducted and a vulnerability index was developed by using well-defined indicators. Three major dimensions of vulnerability were analyzed in detail such as exposure, adaptive capacity, and sensitivity. A multiple linear regression model was used to formulate the results. The analyzed results showed that flood was the main cause of the destruction of houses, livestock, and destruction of agriculture production. Results showed that farm household communities were the most vulnerable and floods hazard has a negative impact on the livelihood of human beings and the economy of Punjab as well.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Waqas Manzoor Copyright (c) 2021 Waqas Manzoor Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Individual Behavior on Household Energy Saving <table width="659"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="458"> <p>Energy-saving behaviors are defined as the daily and habitual practices of households that focus on specific reductions in energy use. The main objective of this research was to estimate the impact of the energy-saving behavior of individuals on energy demand and to estimate the impact of factors affections the adoption of energy-saving techniques<strong>. </strong>The study is based on primary data which is collected through questionnaires. The data were collected from rural and urban households in four tehsils of district Sargodha, Pakistan. The Ordinary Least Square technique was to describe the relationship between electricity consumption and different explanatory variables such as gender, age, region, family members, dwelling area, income, energy consumption awareness, external influencing factors, and household saving behavior. Job status is negative and significant, qualification variable in this study is insignificant, marital status is negatively associated with energy consumption and significant, size of a household has a significant effect on the model. The monthly income of the household head has a positive and significant effect. Energy consumption awareness is significantly negative. External influencing factors are insignificant. Saving behavior in electronic appliances is significantly negative to energy consumption. Government should put efforts to aware the public about energy-saving measures through an awareness campaign using electronic media like mobile and email. Energy-saving appliances should be a sale at cheap prices. The household should have to change its habitual behavior.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Gulshan Maqbool, Zulqarnain Haider Copyright (c) 2021 Gulshan Maqbool Fri, 30 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000